Egypt or (officially: the Arab Republic of Egypt) is an Arab country located in the northeastern corner of the continent of Africa, and it has an Asian extension, where the Sinai Peninsula is located within the continent of Asia, as it is a transcontinental country.

Egypt was distinguished by the presence of the Nile River, which divides its land, which was considered a catalyst for the establishment of an ancient civilization, and Egypt is located in a distinct geographical position that connects the continents of Asia and Africa and is linked to Europe via the Mediterranean. All of this led to the birth of a civilization known as the oldest civilization in human history.

The era of the ancient state

Egyptian civilization developed and the principles of a "central government" appeared around the year 3200 BC. Where King Mina united the two kingdoms of the north and south of Egypt. The era of this state witnessed a comprehensive renaissance in all aspects of life, as the Egyptians reached the hieroglyphic writing, meaning the sacred inscription, and Memphis was established as the first capital of the country. This era witnessed the construction of the first pyramid in Egypt and the world, the step pyramid of Djoser known as the Saqqara pyramid, which is the first stone structure in the world and was built in the year 2861 BC. With the development of art, agriculture, and industry, the Egyptians used the first land river fleet to transport their products. And it became an organized craft like other well-established crafts for which ancient Egypt was famous, and in this era families ruled from the Third Dynasty to the Sixth Dynasty.

The Pharaohs played football before 3000 BC, and they had competitions where the winning team was crowned with two carats of gold.

Middle Kingdom era

The Middle Kingdom (2040 - 1640 BC) precedes the first middle age, in which the dynasties ruled from the seventh to the tenth, which ended with the division of the country. Then came the era of the Middle Kingdom, which began with Pharaoh Mentuhotep II in 2065 BC, who was the Emir of Thebes and re-unified the country. Order was imposed, and the kings of the Middle Kingdom were interested in projects that were most beneficial to the people. Agriculture flourished and handicrafts developed. Egyptian artists and engineers produced a wonderful heritage that spread in Luxor, Fayoum, and Ain Shams.

Art and literature flourished in this era, and among the kings of this era were Amenemhat I, Amenemhat III, and this state was followed by the second middle age, in which the dynasties ruled from 13 to 17 and in which the middle state was weakened, which led to the raiding of tribes inhabiting the eastern Mediterranean region known as the Hyksos of Egypt and their conquest of areas In the north and center of the country.

The era of the modern state

(1580 - 1150 BC-AD) After King Ahmose I eliminated the Hyksos and expelled them outside the borders of the eastern state of Egypt, security and stability returned to the country. Egypt began a new era, the era of the modern state, and Egypt realized the importance of military force to protect the country, so a strong army was established To form a great empire that extended from the Euphrates River in the east to the Fourth Cataract on the Nile in the south So that Egypt became the first great power in human history, thus becoming a great sprawling empire and the oldest empire in history.

 

The kings and queens of the Eighteenth Dynasty gained worldwide fame in the fields of politics, war, culture, civilization, and religion Ahmose the hero of liberation, Amenhotep I the Just, who issued a law banning forced labor and establishing fair standards for wages and incentives Thutmose I the warrior who expanded the Egyptian borders in the north and south, spread education and expanded the conquest Mines and the mining industry Thutmose II the Eloquent and Thutmose III, the emperor with an outstanding military genius and the first great conqueror in the history of the world

And Thutmose IV, the diplomat who was the first to be interested in codifying and recording international treaties, and Amenhotep III, the richest king in the ancient world, who opened schools "houses of life" to spread education and plastic and applied arts.

Akhenaten was the first to call for the unification of the pharaonic gods and symbolized them with the sun disk, and Tutankhamun, who gained fame in the contemporary world.

Among the most famous queens of this family, for example, Queen Ahhotep, wife of King Seqenenre, Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, wife of Ahmose I, Queen Tiye of the People, wife of Amenhotep III, mother of Akhenaten, Queen Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten, and the great Queen Hatshepsut who ruled Egypt around the twenties. year old

During her reign, Egypt reached the highest peak in civilization, architecture, and international trade, when a commercial and scientific naval mission was sent to the country of Punt. It also built one of the greatest and most magnificent and luxurious architectural monuments, which is the Temple of Deir el-Bahari on the western shore of the Nile opposite Luxor. It is a unique temple in its design. It has no equal among all the temples of the ancient world and Karnak Temple, which is the largest temple in the ancient world.

This era also witnessed the "religious revolution of Akhenaten", where he called for the worship of one god and symbolized him with the disk of the sun and established a new capital for the country and named it "Akhitaton" · King Ramses II, who defeated the Hittites and concluded with their king the first peace treaty in history and built about 6 temples, the most famous of which is the Temple of Abu Semple, and Ramses III who repelled the attacks of the Libyans and the peoples of the Mediterranean.

Persian invasion of Egypt

After Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, ascended the throne, he worked to establish the foundations of his rule and secure its borders, in which there were some disturbances. After four years, he began to think of occupying Egypt and annexing it to the Persian Empire. Cambyses II asked for the hand of the daughter of Ahmose II, but he refused and decided to send him the daughter of King Apris instead, which caused Cambyses to become very angry and hastened his occupation of Egypt.

During the reign of Ahmose II, Egypt was enjoying great progress and stability throughout his reign. Despite this, there were some weaknesses that seemed to pose a danger to them. The Egyptian army was its mainstay, many foreign mercenaries, which makes their loyalty questionable, as well as the grants that belonged to them. Ahmose made them the subject of envy and hatred from the Egyptians, and as a result of these matters, one of the leaders in the army, called Phanes, fled to the ranks of the Cambyses army and informed him of the plans and locations of the Egyptian army, as he indicated to him on the paths of the desert.

Ahmose tried to prepare for the expected attack by Cambyses by trying to make an alliance with the country of Cyprus and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who owned a large fleet in order to have maritime supremacy, but he failed as he failed him and joined the Persians.

Cambyses was able to secure water for his army from the leaders of the regions that his army would pass through in the southern desert, and in the meantime, Ahmose II died before Cambyses began his campaign and reached Egypt. His son Psamtik III took over the rule, succeeding his father.

He faced the Cambyses army after crossing the Arabian desert and arriving at the front fortress on Pelusium borders near Port Said, and Psamtik was defeated in that battle and withdrew to Memphis, and Cambyses continued his advance, reaching Ain Shams and then to Memphis, where he faced Psamtik again, but he was defeated and captured in this battle, and Cambyses seized the capital, and Egypt became a Persian state.

Greek era

Alexander the Great succeeded in defeating the Persians in Asia Minor and continued his conquests to India, where he used a naval team and Egyptian expeditionary crews, and before that, he succeeded in expelling the Persians from Egypt who did not resist the year 333 BC. Alexander himself was crowned king according to the method of the pharaohs and laid the foundation of the city of Alexandria and then made a pilgrimage to the Temple of Amun in Siwa Oasis, which was enjoying wide international fame at that time.

The rule of the Ptolemies, the dynasty that descended from Ptolemy, one of Alexander’s close leaders, Egypt from 333 until 30 BC, where 15 Ptolemaic kings took over the rule of Egypt. The independence of Egypt, as Rome sought to extend its influence over Egypt and eliminated the Ptolemies in the year 30 BC during the reign of Queen Cleopatra VII, who was the last king of Ptolemaic EgyptEgypt's independence ended and it joined the Roman Empire.

Aspects of Egyptian civilization in the era of the Ptolemies

The Ptolemies in Alexandria built palaces and gardens, and Alexandria became a center of civilization, where it became famous in the field of art, science, industry, and trade. It was also the first port in the Mediterranean thanks to its famous lighthouse, which the Greeks considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

A great Greek civilization was established in Alexandria, represented in:

  • The University of Alexandria (ancient), which was established by the Ptolemies, thanks to the scholars of Alexandria University in reaching scientific facts about the rotation of the Earth around the sun and estimating the circumference of the Earth. The geographer and Manetho, the Egyptian historian
  • The Library of Alexandria and its Cultural Impact: The Ptolemies established in Alexandria a huge library that was considered the greatest library in the world, containing more than half a million papyrus scrolls. ·
  • The Ptolemies respected the Egyptians’ religion and offered sacrifices to Egyptian deities, and built temples for them such as Edfu Temple, Dendera Temple, and Philae Temples in Aswan.
  • Ptolemy, I included a number of annexes to Egypt, namely Cyrenaica, southern Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Cyprus.

Roman era

The Romans entered Egypt in the year 30 BC and it became one of its states. In fact, Egypt became one of the most important states of the Roman Empire due to its economic importance. Egypt was known at the time as the food basket of the Roman state.

The manufacture of glass, paper, and linen, in addition to perfumes and cosmetics, was also famous in Egypt.

Coptic era

Christianity entered Egypt in the middle of the first century AD, with the entry of St. Mark to Alexandria and the establishment of the first church in Egypt and Africa as a whole.

Christians have suffered from Roman persecution, especially during the period of Emperor Diocletian, who took the Copts from the year he took the throne of the empire as the beginning of the annual calendar for Coptic Christians.

The world took different aspects of Coptic literature, the most important of which are the sayings of the fathers, then the sermons of the saints in the struggle of paganism to establish Christianity, then magic, then worldly or folk literature.

As for the sayings of the fathers, they are the ecclesiastical sayings that supported monasticism and demonstrated its psychological and practical aspects. There were delegations to Egypt from the East and West who wrote down these sayings and confirmed them in their Greek, Latin, and Syriac languages.

These pure Christian teachings opened the way for them to monasticism, so they followed its gift and followed its path. The Coptic monks in their early ages were known for their piety and humility.

They worked and taught, and their sayings came in different languages ​​in the book “The Monks’ Garden” and the books of the clever fathers in worship as well as in their biographies. There appeared in Egypt from the Coptic saints who did not know the world stronger than them in the establishment of Christianity and the struggle against paganism.

Islamic era

Islam entered Egypt during the reign of the Arab Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab and was led by Amr Ibn Al-Aas in the year 641 AD. During the period of Arab Islamic rule, Egypt witnessed progress in the fields of construction and arts, such as architecture, decorations, and Islamic inscriptions, and many mosques, castles, and walls were built.

In the Fatimid era, Al-Azhar Mosque was considered the most famous architecture in the era of the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt, in addition to several other aspects. Salah El-Din Citadel, which is the most famous castle in Cairo, in addition to the architectural wealth that appeared in the Mamluk era.

upper family

Muhammad Ali is considered the founder of modern Egypt for the reforms he carried out that covered all aspects of life in accordance with the spirit of the modern era at the time. He began building the powerful Egyptian army and established the military school, and the shipbuilding industry was established in Bulaq and the naval arsenal in Alexandria.

He reformed the conditions of agriculture and irrigation, built barrages, dams, and canals, and established factories and laboratories to meet the needs of the army and sell the surplus to the people. In the field of trade, Muhammad Ali Pasha worked to spread security for the internal trade routes and established a fleet for foreign trade, where the trade movement flourished in Egypt.

He spread education to meet the needs of government offices, so he established schools of all levels and specializations, sent missions to Europe, and transferred modern sciences.

The sons of Muhammad Ali tried to follow his path in an attempt to catch up with European civilization. During the reign of Khedive Ismail Pasha, the country witnessed a renaissance represented in administrative reform. Industry and agriculture witnessed a great renaissance and prosperity during his reign, and he was interested in building and architecture, and established the Khedivial Opera House, and the extension of railways, and in The year 1869 opened the Suez Canal for international navigation in a grand celebration.

Egypt has witnessed several revolutions against foreign interference, as the national movement intensified, and the Urabi revolution in 1882 ended with Britain's occupation of Egypt, which declared protection over Egypt in 1914 and ended its official dependence on the Ottoman Empire.

Republic

Egypt entered the twentieth century and was burdened with the burdens of British colonialism with its pressures to plunder its wealth. The popular resistance and the national movement against the occupation escalated under the leadership of Mustafa Kamel and Muhammad Farid. The patriotic feeling emerged strongly with the 1919 revolution to demand independence, and the national leader Saad Zagloul had a prominent role in it, then the British protection was abolished in Egypt in 1922, recognizing its independence, and promulgating the first Egyptian constitution in 1923.

Revolution-era

The El-Bakbashi Gamal Abdel Nasser, Major General Mohamed Naguib, and other Egyptian Free Officers led the July 23, 1952 revolution. It carried out many tasks, the most important of which was the issuance of the agrarian reform law, and the first five-year plan for economic and social development in the history of Egypt in 1960 and an attempt to develop industry and production, and the High Dam was established 1960-1970, which is considered by the United Nations to be the most important development project in the world in the twentieth century.

In order to complete its construction, Egypt fought a long war against the great powers that wanted to restrain Egypt during the rule of Gamal Abdel Nasser. It also assisted the country in the fields of education, health, construction, reconstruction, and agriculture. . In the field foreign policy, the July Revolution, led by Gamal Abdel Nasser, encouraged the liberation movements from colonialism.

It also adopted the policy of positive neutrality as a basic principle in its foreign policies. At that time, Egypt became the capital of national liberation in the world. Israel, France, and England carried out an organized attack on Egypt.

The tripartite aggression against Egypt was called, and the Egyptian army and the popular resistance carried out heroic actions to repel the French and the English. As for Israel, it took the entire Sinai, but a decision was issued by the Security Council at that time to return all the occupied land to Egypt and the illegality of the attack on Egypt.

On June 5, 1967, Israel launched an attack on Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, and occupied the Sinai, the Golan, and the West Bank of Jordan.

Despite the severity of the loss, the Egyptian army was able to cross this ordeal in its steadfastness against the Israeli forces and entering the war of attrition. At that time, Gamal Abdel Nasser died in September 1970, and his funeral was one of the largest in history.

October War

Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat took over after Gamal Abdel Nasser. He worked to settle the internal problems of the state and prepare Egypt to fight a war to liberate the Sinai. On October 6, 1973, at 2:00 pm, the Egyptian armed forces and the Syrian Arab armed forces carried out an attack on the Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. The war began on the Egyptian front with the airstrike launched by the Egyptian Air Force against the Israeli forces, and the Egyptian forces crossed to the East Bank and raised the Egyptian flag.

President Anwar Sadat entered into settling the Arab-Israeli conflict to find an opportunity for lasting peace in the Middle East. He agreed to the peace treaty presented by Israel (Camp David) on March 26, 1979, with the participation of the United States, after President Sadat's visit to Israel paved the way in 1977, and Israel withdrew from The Sinai Peninsula was completely withdrawn on April 25, 1982, while retaining the Taba border strip, and the Egyptian government recovered this tape later, based on the arbitration that took place at the International Court of Justice later.

Egypt's signing of the peace agreement and Sadat's visit to Israel sparked resentment inside and outside Egypt. Supporters of this agreement believe that it returned the Sinai to Egypt, and paved the way for peace in the Middle East.

While its opponents believe that the effects of this agreement have isolated an Arab country with political and military weight, Egypt, from the Arab-Israeli conflict, and worked to limit the scope of the Egyptian army's movement in the Sinai, as well as weakening Egypt's leading role in the Arab world.

On November 2, 1978, a conference of the Arab League was held, in which it was decided to transfer the headquarters of the League of Arab States from Egypt, and Egypt's membership was suspended from 1979 to 1989. Ten Arab countries participated in this summit in addition to the Palestine Liberation Organization. The United Arab Emirates opposed the Arab steps against Egypt.

Sadat's assassination

By the fall of 1981, the government launched a massive campaign of arrests, including heads of Islamic movements, Coptic Church officials, writers opposed to President Sadat, journalists, and left-wing and liberal thinkers. President Sadat intends to release them immediately upon receipt of the land of Sinai.

On October 6, 1981 (31 days after the arrest decisions were announced), Sadat was assassinated in a military parade on the occasion of the anniversary of the October War, and he led the assassination, Khaled al-Islambouli of the Islamic Jihad Organization, which was strongly opposed to the peace agreement with Israel and did not like the campaign of repression. The organization was carried out by the government in the month of September. He was succeeded in the presidency by Vice President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak.

Mubarak era

  • October 14, 1981, Muhammad Hosni Mubarak assumed the presidency of the Arab Republic of Egypt after the People's Assembly nominated him.
  • October 5, 1987, was re-nominated as President of the Republic for a second term.
  • 1993 Re-nominated as President of the Republic for a third term.
  • September 26, 1999, he was re-nominated as President of the Republic for a fourth term.
  • He was also elected for a new term in 2005 in the first pluralistic presidential elections in Egypt following a constitutional amendment.

Second Republic

On January 25, 2011, a popular revolution was known as the January 25 Revolution. The collective protests lasted for 18 days. On February 11, Muhammad Hosni Mubarak announced his resignation and assigned the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to run the country's affairs. Egypt began a stage called the stage of democratic transition. A referendum was held to amend the Constitution of 71, which included limiting presidential terms to two terms only. Then elections were held for the People's Assembly and the Shura Council. On June 21, 2012, Mohamed Morsi was declared president of the republic after a pluralistic presidential election in which 13 candidates participated.

 

Mohamed Morsi's presidency of Egypt lasted for one year, as demonstrations took place on June 30, 2013, and the armed forces led by Minister of Defense Abdel Fattah El-Sisi carried out a coup that removed the president and appointed Adly Mansour as interim president. Supporters of the ousted president gathered in two important squares in Cairo and Giza for 65 days, then their sit-in was dispersed and this process and its consequences left hundreds of deaths.

After a one-year transitional period, presidential elections were held in which only two candidates were nominated: Defense Minister Abdel Fattah El-Sisi and Hamdeen Sabahi. And it was announced that Sisi won the presidency of Egypt with 96.1%.

The history of Egitto is the longest continuous history of any country in the world

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